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Contract de know-how

Contract de know-how

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Contractul de know-how este acela în virtutea căruia una dintre părţi, numită furnizor, transmite celeilalte părţi, numite beneficiar, în schimbul unei redevenţe, cunoştinţe tehnice nebrevetabile sau brevetabile, dar nebrevetate, ce-i sunt necesare pentru fabricarea, funcţionarea, întreţinerea ori comercializarea unor mărfuri sau pentru elaborarea şi punerea în fabricaţie a unor tehnici sau procedee. Prin contractul de know-howse urmărește așadar transmiterea unui ansamblu de cunoştinţe de către furnizor, în schimbul plății preţului de către beneficiar. Acesta din urmă nu are obligaţia de a dezvolta know-how-ul decât dacă în contract se prevede expres acest fapt, însă dacă alege să o facă, atunci îl utilizează sub marca proprie.

Descriere

Contractul de know-how este acela în virtutea căruia una dintre părţi, numită furnizor, transmite celeilalte părţi, numite beneficiar, în schimbul unei redevenţe, cunoştinţe tehnice nebrevetabile sau brevetabile, dar nebrevetate, ce-i sunt necesare pentru fabricarea, funcţionarea, întreţinerea ori comercializarea unor mărfuri sau pentru elaborarea şi punerea în fabricaţie a unor tehnici sau procedee. Prin contractul de know-howse urmărește așadar transmiterea unui ansamblu de cunoştinţe de către furnizor, în schimbul plății preţului de către beneficiar. Acesta din urmă nu are obligaţia de a dezvolta know-how-ul decât dacă în contract se prevede expres acest fapt, însă dacă alege să o facă, atunci îl utilizează sub marca proprie.

Noţiunea de know-how este definită în cuprinsul art. 1 lit. d) din O.G. nr. 52/1997 privind regimul juridic al francizei, ca fiind „ansamblul formulelor, definiţiilor tehnice, documentelor, desenelor şi modelelor, reţelelor, procedeelor şi al altor elemente analoage, care servesc la fabricarea şi comercializarea unui produs.”
Contractul de know-how nu beneficiază de o reglementare specifică la nivel naţional şi nici de un cadru uniform legal la nivel internaţional. Singurele instrumente internaţionale privind contractul de know-how sunt cele elaborate de Comisia Economică pentru Europa, de Camera Internaţională de Comerţ de la Paris sau de Asociaţia internaţională pentru protecţia proprietăţii industriale. Practica şi literatura de specialitate au conturat domeniul şi natura juridică a acestui contract.
Contractul de know-how este definit în doctrină ca fiind „contractul în virtutea căruia una dintre părţi, numită furnizor, transmite celeilalte părţi, numite beneficiar, în schimbul unei redevenţe, cunoştinţe tehnice nebrevetabile sau brevetabile, dar nebrevetate, ce-i sunt necesare pentru fabricarea, funcţionarea, întreţinerea ori comercializarea unor mărfuri sau pentru elaborarea şi punerea în fabricaţie a unor tehnici sau procedee.”

Cu privire la natura juridică a contractului de know-how, prima precizare care se impune este înlăturarea confuziei care se face între acest contract şi contractul de licenţă asupra unui brevet. Posesorul de know-how nu are un drept de proprietate industrială, terţii putând utiliza cunoştinţele ce-i formează obiectul dacă le dobândesc prin experienţă proprie. În consecinţă, în timp ce contractul de licenţă transmite unei alte persoane dreptul de a exploata invenţia brevetată, ceea ce implică obligaţia pentru titularul de brevet de a nu exercita dreptul de interdicţie pe care legea i-l atribuie spre a-l ocroti împotriva terţilor, contractul de know-how transmite dreptul la cunoştinţele furnizorilor către beneficiar cu efectele relative.
S-ar putea spune că în privinţa transmiterii elementelor încorporate, contractul de know-howeste un contract de locaţiune de servicii, însă titularul unui know-how păstrează independența faţă de beneficiar.

Datorită importanţei elementelor intelectuale, contractul de know-how este calificat, de regulă, ca un contract de antrepriză. Această calificare nu este însă cea mai fericită, deoarececontractul de know-how implică o colaborare din partea beneficiarului, iar transmiţătorul de know-how are o obligaţie de mijloace, nu una de rezultat cum este în cazul antreprizei.
Clauzele conţinute în contractul de know-how prezintă o importanţă deosebită, aşa încât se cere redactarea lor cu grijă sporită. Pe lângă obiectul precis, prezintă importanţă deosebită teritoriul sau localitatea unde va fi folosit, materiile prime şi echipamentele, dar mai ales mijloacele de păstrare a secretului, precauţiunile de luat pentru asigurarea unor prestaţii accesorii, limitele de utilizare, obligaţiile reciproce privind ameliorarea şi modificările ulterioare, precum şi schimburile de experienţă.

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